Kickstarting this thread! I will flesh it out gradually, please join in. Inaugurating it with this excellent compilation by Andrew Lewis-Pye: Consensus Canon - a16z crypto


Low hanging fruit :slight_smile: :
I would also recommend the readings referenced here: COMS 6998-006: Foundations of Blockchains, Fall 2021



  • Snowman++: congestion control for Snowman VMs [Buttolph, 2021]
  • Avalanche Blockchain Consensus [Avalanche Docs, 2022]
  • Scaling Avalanche with Subnets and Specialized VMs with [O’Grady, a16z crypto, 2023]
  • Scalable and Probabilistic Leaderless BFT Consensus through Metastability [Team Rocket, et al., 2020]
  • Apricot Phase Four: Snowman++ and Reduced C-Chain Transaction Fees [O’Grady, 2021]


  • Celestia Consensus Specs [Celestia repo, 2022-]
  • Lazy Ledger: A Distributed Data Availability Ledger With Client -Side Smart Contracts [Al-Bassam, 2019]


  • Block production in Ethereum after The Merge [Stokes, 2022]
  • Paths toward single-slot finality [Buterin, 2022-]
  • EIP-4844 Consensus Specs – Polynomial Commitments [Ethereum CL Specs]
  • Whisk: A practical shuffle-based SSLE protocol for Ethereum [asn, 2022]
  • Reorg resilience and security in post-SSF LMD-GHOST [fradamt, 2022]
  • Secret non-single leader election [Buterin, 2022]
  • Two-slot proposer/builder separation [Buterin, 2021]
  • Ethereum Reorgs After The Merge [Konstantanopoulos, Buterin, 2021]

Decentralized Thoughts

More Consensus Protocols

  • Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol [Kiayias, et al, 2019]
  • Sync HotStuff: Simple and Practical Synchronous State Machine Replication [Abraham, et al., 2019]
  • DiemBFT v4: State Machine Replication in the Diem Blockchain [Diem Team, 2021]
  • Narwhal and Tusk: A DAG-based Mempool and Efficient BFT Consensus [Danezis, etal. 2022]
  • Narwhal and Tusk (video) [Lefteris Kokoris Kogias 2022]


  • A model for Bitcoin’s security and the declining block subsidy [Hasu, Prestwich, Curtis, 2019]
  • Everything is a race and Nakamoto Always Wins [Kannan, Tse, Denbo, et al., 2020]


  • Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance [Castro, Liskov, 1999]
  • Optimal Good-case Latency for Rotating Leader Synchronous BFT [Abraham, et al. 2021]
  • How To Withstand Mobile Virus Attacks [Ostrovsky, Yung, 1991]
  • Long-range Attacks on Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Blockchains (video)[Nikolaenko, a16z crypto, 2022]
  • Resource Pools and the CAP Theorem [Lewis-Pye, Roughgarden, 2020]
  • Consensus in the Age of Blockchains [Banno, et al., 2017]
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